Password Resets and Changes
If you've lost or forgotten your password, click the "Reset Password" link on the Adapt-N login page. This will guide you through the process of obtaining a new password. If you need further assistance, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
To change your password:
- Click on the link for Settings in the left hand navigation panel
- Under My Settings click on the Change my password link
If you are an admin and need to change the password of an account under you, visit the Resetting User Passwords and User Deactivation page.
Billing admins have the ability to deactivate users in their system. To deactivate users, visit the Resetting User Passwords and User Deactivation page.
Fields can be quickly created in Adapt-N by importing a Shapefile created by one of many software systems. The process is as follows:
- Create a Shapefile at the Field Level
- Confirm that the three core files -- .shp, .shx and .dbf -- are included
- Zip these files together (see How to Create a Zip File)
- On Adapt-N's Land tab, drag the zip file onto the Create Field drop zone
- Within a few seconds, the imported field should be displayed on a map
- Select (or create a new) farm and specify field name, and click Submit
- Additional Shapefile file types, such as .prj and .sbn, may be included in the zip file, but will be ignored during the Adapt-N import process.
"Invalid shape file, shp, shx, or dbf files missing." - Generally this means that the imported zip file does not contain the three required files, .shp, .shx, and .dbf. If all three files are present in the zip file, it is likely that those files are not properly formed. Attempt to re-export the Shapefiles from the original source, or contact support for further assistance.
How to Create a Zip File
In order to import shapefiles into Adapt-N you must first compress or zip them; instructions for both PC and Mac are below. At minimum you must have the DBF, SHP and SHX file types.
On a PC:
- Highlight all three of the required files (DBF, SHP, SHX) with your mouse
- Right click on any of the highlighted files
- Hover over Send To in the pop-up menu
- Select Compressed Zip Folder from the 2nd pop-up menu
- Name the file that was created and hit Enter, this is the file that you will drag and drop into Adapt-N via the browser window
On a Mac:
- Highlight all three of the required files (DBF, SHP, SHX) with your mouse
- Right click on any of the highlighted files
- Select Compress 3 Items from the pop-up menu
- A new zip file named Archive.zip will appear, this is the file that you will drag and drop into Adapt-N via the browser window
Weather data summary
The Adapt-N platform utilizes data from several high-quality weather data providers. Our models automatically incorporate daily inputs for temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation at a 4 km (approximately 2.5 mile) resolution or greater. These data are captured from a combination of radar estimated and ground observational sources, with trusted methods for extending observations to areas where no physical weather stations exist. The Adapt-N research team regularly evaluates the accuracy of different weather providers and identifies the most appropriate source(s) for each service region. Some customer implementations also have the option to utilize on-farm weather stations when they exist within 0.5 km of a field.
New climate data is acquired several times per day, and the associated rainfall amounts shown on the recommendation page are updated without delay (although in some cases they are error-adjusted as additional stations report ground readings, so they may change slightly in the first 24-48 hours after the event). However, since Adapt-N is simulating what's actually happening in a field in real-time, it can take up to 3-4 days for the effects of that precipitation to fully impact a recommendation in a meaningful way. In the case of leaching, for example, it can take 1-2 days for the water to move through the soil profile; for denitrification, it takes a few days for the soil to go into an anaerobic state. Adapt-N models these impacts and adjusts the recommendations accordingly, and of course these rates will differ depending on soil type, rooting depth, slope, and other factors.
A good rule of thumb is to review the recommendation 3 full days after a rainfall event ends.
Which states are supported in Adapt-N?
Adapt-N’s current service area includes the following US states: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
If you try to create a field in a state that is not supported you will see an error like this:
Why is the soybean N credit in the recommendation relatively low?
Adapt-N uses two components to the soybean N credit. One is a straight credit that is listed with the recommendation, and the other is indirectly a dynamic credit that is dependent on weather conditions and other user inputs. The tool recognizes that the so-called soybean N credit is mostly an absence of a corn-after-corn debit, which relates to the tie-up (immobilization) of nitrogen from corn stover. When corn follows soybean, this immobilization does not occur, which is then basically a nitrogen credit compared to corn following corn.
How can I use Adapt-N and with crop sensors like Greenseeker and OptRx?
Crop sensors measure the relative vigor of the crop in different areas of the field through a set of reflectance measurements that translate into a vegetation index. Typically, the site-specific vigor is referenced to an “optimum” zone in the field, which may be a strip that received a high rate of N fertilizer or an area that is considered to have the best soil conditions in the field. It is generally assumed that N fertilizer is the limiting factor that impacts crop vigor in that case (which may not always be the case). This approach is very different from the one taken by Adapt-N, which simulates nitrogen dynamics in the soil–crop system for an entire growing season. Since the crop sensors are a single time assessment of field conditions, they do not provide the seasonal monitoring capabilities and temporal weather integration capabilities of Adapt-N. But they do offer actual in-field measurements at a critical growth stage which indirectly integrates the effects of soil, management, and weather conditions. This can be useful in combination with Adapt-N’s model simulations to fine-tune site-specific applications.
Crop sensors generally allow you to set the range of N applications for a field through a rate table. This allows for incorporation of Adapt-N information into the crop sensor technology. We have not explicitly tested this method, but believe that the following approach would maximize the benefits of each tool:
First, use Adapt-N in the early growing season to monitor the nitrogen status of the field. It will be indicating whether the crop is deficient in nitrogen and additional applications are needed. If sufficient N is available, use of crop sensing or sidedress N applications may not even be necessary.
If Adapt-N indicates that additional N is required, we suggest entering the Adapt-N recommendations in the rate tables for the crop sensors. These tables indicate the range of N rates to be applied within the field. Adapt-N can estimate this range if you enter multiple zones for a field in the tool, each representing different soil types or other sources of soil variation (organic matter content, texture, etc.). The simplest approach is to enter the highest Adapt-N recommended rate as the maximum rate in the crop sensor software, and the lowest Adapt-N rate as the minimum crop sensor prescription. However, since Adapt-N zones will generally still represent larger field areas, the range may need to be set wider. As an approximate guide, we recommend adding an additional 10 pounds per acre to the maximum prescription and reducing the minimum by an additional 10 pounds per acre. For example, if the “best” zone has an Adapt-N recommendation of 130 pounds per acre, and the “worst” zone has a recommendation of 150 pounds per acre, the minimum prescription in the rate table for the crop sensor would be 120, while the maximum would be 160. The range can be slightly expanded in the case of highly variable fields.
Note, however, that the assumption that areas of the fields with greater crop vigor need less nitrogen may not always be true. Areas with better initial crop growth may also have higher yield potential and need more nitrogen to reach full yields. Therefore, guidance from Adapt-N may help improve the use of crop sensors in ways different than described above. Notably, the nitrogen status in soil and crop estimated by Adapt-N can explain field-scale patterns and help decide which areas need higher or lower N rates.
Guidelines for Urea Applications and the use of Adapt-N
In general, an application of a urea-containing nitrogen product on the surface has a higher risk of loss than if the application were incorporated or promptly irrigated into the field. Such occurrences of urea-based nitrogen loss can be further exacerbated by high temperatures and high soil pH values (generally, > 8.0); both of these factors accelerate the urease enzyme reactions responsible for ammonia volatilization loss.
As such, Adapt-N recommends the following when considering the application of a urea-containing nitrogen product:
- applications should be banded or incorporated whenever possible, as contact with the soil creates a more stable compound not subject to volatilization losses
- if urea-containing surface applications are required, higher N losses should be expected when:
- temperatures are warm;
- soil pH levels are high;
- and no means exists to rapidly dissolve the urea (either via forecasted precipitation or irrigation capabilities)
- when urea-containing surface applications are to be applied:
- a liquid product such as UAN is less subject to volatilization loss in warm conditions since the liquid material will be more rapidly drawn into the soil than a solid
- consider the use of the urease inhibitor NBPT, as this will slow the volatilization reactions in certain conditions
Adapt-N continues to enhance its modeling efforts and calibration, including efforts to simulate the specific impacts of extreme temperature and pH conditions. In the event that urea is surface applied in hot temperatures and/or high pH soils without the above suggested mitigating tactics, users are advised to expect the potential for higher than indicated losses.
General Crop and N Rules for Adapt-N
SEASON START DATES:
- By default, the model simulation starts November 1 of the previous year
- If a manure or N application is made before November 1 but after September 1 of the previous year, the simulation will start on the manure or N application date
- Manure applied or sod terminated before September 1 of the previous year will be counted as a prior season application
- If the previous crop was Sod, Grass Hay, Alfalfa, or Mixed Legume Hay, then the corresponding 'Termination Date,' 'Legume Percent' and 'Termination Method' must be defined for that forage-sod crop
- A forage-sod termination date can be specified from the current or prior 2 seasons
- If a sod date is specified for any time this season, then the previous crop has to be listed as sod
- Manure applied later than September 1 of the prior year is considered part of the current season N management
- Up to 3 manure applications can be specified for the current season
- For applications before September 1 of the prior fall, you can only choose Incorporated or Left on Soil Surface as Incorporation Method; applications for the current season have more specific incorporation options available
- If you edit an existing application, the date range is restricted to the calendar year in which the manure application was originally entered
- Historical manure applications can be modeled going back 2 calendar years. (For example, during the 2023 growing season, manure applications on or after January 1, 2021 will be modeled)
- One starter application is allowed
- Any number of non-starter applications are allowed
PSNT sampling method for banded fertilizer
Given the high spatial variability of soil nitrate in fields with banded fertilizer, we suggest the following as an alternative method for soil sampling and making any desired adjustments to the Virtual PSNT in Adapt-N.
- Follow the sampling practices outlined in the Recommended Sampling Methodology, but sample away from the fertilizer bands, typically midway between the rows, to avoid fertilizer hot spots.
- Adapt-N’s Virtual PSNT accounts for fertilizer additions with applications dates that have already occurred, so the best way to compare the field measured (between-row) PSNT and the Virtual PSNT is to temporarily remove the fertilizer application from the field configuration. In most cases, you can change the rate to 1 lb and avoid having to re-enter all of the information for that application later.
- If you decide to use the lab’s PSNT numbers as the basis for Observations in Adapt-N, these should be based on the difference between the measured between-row values and the Virtual PSNT without the addition of fertilizer.
- 60 lbs of N was applied in the row pre-emergence. The Adapt-N Virtual PSNT including this application is 22 ppm.
- The between-row field-measured PSNT (sampled away from band) is 9 ppm.
- After removing the 60 lb fertilizer application from Adapt-N and re-running the recommendation on the sample date, Virtual PSNT is 13 ppm, 4 ppm higher than the field-measured PSNT.
- Add an Observation to reduce the Virtual PSNT by 4 ppm to 18 ppm.
- Remember to restore the actual fertilizer application in the Adapt-N field.
Nitrate Sampling Protocol and Recommendations
Soil Nitrate Test Observation
Adapt-N’s Virtual PSNT (sometimes called LSNT) provides simulated nitrate levels in the top 12” of the soil on a daily basis throughout the season. This helps reduce or even eliminate the need for extensive PSNT sampling.
Users who nevertheless are sampling for soil nitrate levels in the field to enhance the Adapt-N simulations can enter those test results as an Observation into Adapt-N. This adjusts the soil nitrate levels for the date of the test, and subsequently adjusts Adapt-N’s simulations. Explicit nitrate PPM values can be utilized, which cause Adapt-N's nitrate value as of the date and depth of the test to be changed to the user-supplied value, with subsequent daily simulations continuing from that point forward. Or, relative values can be supplied using the Nitrate Adjustment factor. The Nitrate Adjustment factor allows the user to supply a relative percentage by which Adapt-N's inherent nitrate PPM calculations as of a given date and depth will be modified. These observations can be supplied either at the zone level, or via the Field Configuration tool.
Example single-zone observation setting an explicit nitrate value to 10 ppm:
Example single-zone observation using a Nitrate Adjustment Factor to increase the zone's nitrate value by 15% as of the date and depth supplied:
In the above example, if Adapt-N's inherent nitrate simulation on 2018-05-01 was 10 ppm, this would cause the nitrate value to be raised to 15ppm. 15ppm would then be the new baseline moving forward, for future-date simulations.
Recommended Sampling Methodology
Soil nitrate tests are inherently variable, so it’s important to follow guidelines to minimize sampling bias and to maximize the consistency of results. Sampling strategies should be well thought out, documented, and consistently used. Give consideration to the management practices to ensure the sampling effort accurately captures variability within the field.
- PSNT samples should be taken when the corn plants are between 6 and 12 inches tall.
- Weather - make sure necessary precautions or adjustments are made if sampling around rainfall events. Significant rainfall prior to sampling can cause spatial variability in results. This can inaccurately depict losses of applied N fertilizer resulting in excess N being applied. Try to avoid sampling while the field is very wet or within 3 days of a high rainfall event.
- Sample the top 12 inches of the soil profile (the standard depth for PSNT). With early season rainfall events, N below the 1 ft level could very well be lost before the roots reach it.
- Samples should be from representative areas within a field: take management zones, soil textures, or other forms of spatial variation into account when determining where to sample. If possible, log GPS coordinates of sampling locations for future reference.
- Each sample should be based on a composite of multiple soil cores. Collect at least 10 cores per sample to represent a sampling area: Establish a consistent protocol to determine how many cores need to be included in a sample, and where those cores should come from. Balance the cores among row and between-row areas.
- Applications of banded (vs. broadcast) fertilizer or manure applications cause high spatial variability of soil nitrogen -- especially when applied in high amounts (e.g., through a large pre-plant injection). It is very difficult to get accurate PSNT estimates, because the results are highly dependent on whether soil cores were collected from the band or not. A consistent sampling protocol is needed to avoid introducing bias. We suggest the protocol available on this help page to address this challenge. An alternative approach is provided by N Watch https://nwatchonline.com/protocols.
- Handling & Shipping Samples: Talk to your soil lab for instructions on how to handle and ship samples as your lab may have a specific protocol to follow to ensure accurate results. Samples should be sent off as soon as possible after sampling.
- Interpretation of Soil Analysis: We found that Adapt-N’s Virtual PSNT tool does a good job at estimating real field values. But due to the expected high variability of PSNT sample results -- especially with manure and large banded fertilizer applications -- you may see some discrepancies between the measured values and Adapt-N’s virtual PSNT estimates. Our field trail data has shown Adapt-N to generally be within 5 ppm of the measured value.
- Once you interpreted the results, you will need to be confident of their accuracy before implementing them into your N strategy. Adapt-N takes these results at face value and makes no determination on their accuracy. If you have concerns over sampling analysis, talk to your soil lab before utilizing results.
Recent reports indicate that new corn hybrids have a tendency to take up more nitrogen during the latter part of the growing season. Does Adapt-N account for that?
Adapt-N calculates the N rate recommendation by considering total seasonal uptake, as well as conditions during the season. Although newer hybrids take up more N during the latter part of the season, the total N uptake per unit of yield remains fairly constant. The Adapt-N tool therefore accounts for these new trends in N uptake patterns. In fact, the tool offers an excellent opportunity to monitor the need for such additional nitrogen as the growing season develops.
- Can I use in-season soil nitrate information (PSNT, LSNT) to adjust Adapt-N recommendations?
If I assess the growth stage of the crop in the field, and it deviates from the Adapt-N estimates, is this a problem?
No. There is some natural variation among cultivars in physiological development, especially during the rapid growth period in the early summer. The Adapt-N tool is generally quite accurate in estimating the growth stage of the corn crop, but it may be off by one or two stages. This has minimal impact on the recommendations. If discrepancies between the Adapt-N estimates and field observations are greater, we suggest verifying crop input information, especially the date of planting.
How do Adapt-N recommendations relate to conventional nitrogen recommendations like MRTN?
The adaptive-dynamic recommendation approach used by Adapt-N allows for more site-specific and timely nitrogen recommendations. Conventional approaches offer static recommendations and are generalized over a broader range of soil and growing conditions. Methods like MRTN can be used as an initial estimate of seasonal nitrogen needs, say, at the beginning of the growing season. Adapt-N offers more precise N rate estimates during the growing season by incorporating weather, soil, agronomic and risk information that is specific to a field and time of the season.
Can the Adapt-N model be adjusted for plow pans?
Yes, the model can be adjusted by plow pans in two ways:
- If you know the depth at which your plow pan starts, then you can define that depth as the bottom of your root zone (labeled “Rooting Depth” in the Land configuration of a field).
- Since tile drain is generally below a plow pan, then a field would be put in as not artificially drained (this is a new option in the “Land” configuration of a field) even if it has tile drainage.